(LOH) were measured as possible markers of oxidative damage to muscles following an acute bout of exercise.
Results showed a significant reduction in these enzymes and the investigators suggest this may be due to MSM’s
ability to prevent lipid peroxidation, therefore preventing leakage of CK and LOH from cell membranes and thus
reducing the serum concentrations. Promotes connective tissue repair and regeneration by decreasing reactive
RONS are generally perceived as destructive in nature. However they are useful in initiating necessary inflammatory responses that lead to healing. It is
important, however, that these free radicals are mediated so oxidative stress which may lead to hyperactive inflammatory or immune response is avoided. This
may involve activation of certain transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB). Studies have shown that MSM inhibits the activation of NF-kB and
its translocation. This action may lead to maintaining adequate antioxidant status, thus preventing oxidative stress which can hinder tissue repair and regeneration.
Increases overall antioxidant defense Although the work suggests that MSM is not a free-radical scavenger, it appears to inhibit
the oxidative function of stimulated neutrophils, thus down regulating the expression of reactive nitrogen
and oxygen species. This suggests an alternative explanation to an in-vivo anti-inflammatory action tied to an overall antioxidant defense. An equine study
by Maraf\on et al. (2008) using jumping exercise as a stimulus showed that MSM supplementation resulted in a decrease in nitrous oxide (NO) and carbon
monoxide (CO) expression and significant increase in glutathione, a very important intracellular antioxidant.
MSM’s ability to increase liver glutathione levels by 78% in mice when supplemented with MSM. MSM significantly increased glutathione and
significantly reduced MOA, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and pro-inflammatory marker IL-1 Bin colonic tissue using a rat model of chemically induced colitis.
These results add credibility to the antioxidant defense capability of MSM as it shows efficacy across different species and from different stimuli of oxidative stress.
Recent Human studies also add support to MSM’s ability to increase the body’s overall antioxidant defense. Kalman et al. (2012) carried out a proof of concept study
on healthy adult males. This study used two different doses of MSM. Results indicated that plasma trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) increased in a
dose dependent manner. In addition homocysteine levels before treatment were either unchanged or increased slightly immediately post exercise whereas with
MSM treatment homocysteine levels decreased significantly in all subjects immediately post exercise, and trendedtowards significance in the higher dosage group.
In Kim et al. (2008) results also indicated significant decrease in urine MOA and serum homocysteine levels in the MSM treatment group. Whether the role
of homocysteine is causative or a result of oxidative stress is poorly understood, however it is agreed that increased oxidative stress and increased homocysteine
levels occur simultaneously.